Organ Specific Cancer Treatment in India

Cancer can occur in all the organs. The treatment plan will differ for different organs based on their site and the intensity of treatment they require. We have further provided the organ specific treatment options for some of the most common types of cancer affecting people all over the world.

By Pankaj Kamble

Updated on 08th, Apr'20

1. Blood Cancer treatment in India

blood-cancer

Blood cancer starts in the bone marrow, which is responsible for producing blood. It occurs when normal blood cells functioning is interrupted due to the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. The blood cancer affects the productivity of the blood cells.

 

In India, blood cancer cases are huge and the country accounts to have approximately 92,000 new cases and 70,000 deaths every year according to Globocan 2018. Also, one of the types of blood cancer – Leukaemia is ranked 9th among the top 20 cancers affecting Indians.

 

Leukaemia, Lymphoma and Myeloma are three main types of blood cancer. In Leukaemia, the abnormal white blood cells are produced in high numbers which starts hampering the bone marrow’s ability to produce red blood cells and platelets.

 

In Lymphoma, the blood cancer affects the lymphatic system. The lymphoma cells grow abnormally in the lymph nodes and other tissues which impair the immune system.

 

Myeloma, this type of cancer affects the plasma cells, which are white blood cells that are responsible for producing antibodies in our body to fight against diseases. As a result, it weakens the immune system.
 

Further, the blood cancer has four stages and the treatment depends on the stages, the type of cancer, patient’s age, and the rate at which the cancer is progressing, the site of cancer and whether it has spread. 

 

The options available for blood cancer treatment in India are:

  • Bone Marrow Transplantation
  • Chemotherapy 
  • Radiation Therapy 

 

2. Prostate Cancer treatment in India

prostate-cancer

Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate gland which is responsible for producing the seminal fluid that helps in nourishment and transportation of sperm. The prostate gland is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. Age and family history are the main risk factors for this cancer.
 

It is a slow growing cancer and is not easily detected because patients do not have significant symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage. That’s the reason most men die of prostate cancer because it’s dangerous.
 

Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer and sixth leading cause of cancer death amongst men. This cancer is constantly and rapidly increasing in India and the studies show that the number of prostate cancer cases will be doubled by 2020. According to the reports of Globocan, 25,700 new cases and 17,200 deaths were reported in the year 2018.
 

There are four stages of prostate cancer and the options available for prostate cancer treatment in India are:

  • Active surveillance
  • Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Biological Therapy
  • Cryosurgery
     

3. Lung Cancer treatment in India

Lung-cancer

Lung Cancer is a type of cancer which starts in the lungs. There are two types of lung cancer:

  • Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: It is the most common type of lung cancer, also known as Adenocarcinoma. It usually starts in the outer parts of the lungs. This cancer type can also start in the cells that line the passages of the respiratory tract known as Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Further, it also includes other types like Large Cell Carcinoma, Sarcoma, and Sarcomatoid Carcinoma.
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer: This type starts in the cells that line the bronchi. It is less common and spreads faster than Non-small cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer in India is the second most common cancer in men and the fifth most common cancer in both men and women together. According to Globocan, approximately 68000 new cases were reported, and 64000 deaths were caused due to this cancer in 2018.
 

The lung cancer treatment in India includes options like:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Targeted Therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Radiofrequency Ablation

 

4. Breast Cancer treatment in India

Breast-cancer

This cancer develops in the cells of the breasts either in lobules which are the glands that produce milk or ducts which are the pathways that carry the milk from glands to the nipple. 
 

It can occur in both men and women. The risk factors for developing breast cancer includes age, gender as its mostly common in women, hereditary, hormonal causes and lifestyle and dietary causes.

 

Breast Cancer is the most common cancer among women in India accounting for 27% of all cancers in women. In India, every 4 minutes,a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer and every 8 minutes a woman dies of breast cancer.It is likely that 1 in 28 women will develop breast cancer during their lifetime.

 

As per the reports of Union health ministry, breast cancer ranks as the number one cancer among Indian females with rate as high as 25.8 per 100,000 women and mortality of 12.7 per 100,000 women.
 

The breast cancer treatment in India include options such as:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Targeted Therapy
     

5. Colon Cancer treatment in india

Colon-cancer

In Colon Cancer, tumours grow in the large intestine (colon). It starts when small benign clumps of cells called as polyps are formed in the colon and over some time these can become colon cancer.It is sometimes called Colorectal cancer because colon and rectal cancer may occur together, and colorectal cancer originates in the rectum.
 

In India, Colon cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and third most common cancer in women. According to Globocan 2018 report around 28000 new cases were reported and 20000 deaths were caused due to colon cancer in the year 2018.

 

The options available for colon cancer treatment in India are:

  • Surgery 
  • Colonoscopy
  • Endoscopic mucosal resection
  • Laparoscopic Surgery
  • Partial Colectomy
  • Colostomy
  • Lymph node removal
  • Chemotherapy 
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Targeted Therapy
  • Immunotherapy

 

6. Pancreatic Cancer treatment in India

Pancreatic-cancer

Pancreatic cancer starts in the tissues of pancreas which is placed behind the stomach and spine. It is responsible for creating pancreatic juices that helps in digestion, and hormones and insulin that helps in controlling blood-sugar levels.

 

The pancreatic cancer can affect either the endocrine or the exocrine glands in the pancreas. Also, it may spread to the nearby organs like liver, abdominal wall, lungs, bones or lymph nodes.
 

In India, the incidence rate of pancreatic cancer is lower as compared to the west. According to the National Cancer Registry Programme, around 8440 and 6090 new cases of pancreatic cancer affecting men and women will be reported by 2020.

 

The options available for pancreatic cancer treatment in India are:

  • Surgery
  • Curative Surgery
  • Palliative Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted Therapy 
  • Immunotherapy 

 

7. Liver Cancer treatment in India

Liver-cancer

Liver cancer begins in the liver. There are many types of liver cancer.However, the most common type is hepatocellular carcinoma whereas the less common types are intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatoblastoma. Also, cancer that spreads to the liver from other organs is more common than cancer that begins in the liver cells.

 

In India, Liver cancer is the 12th most common cancer. According to Globocan 2018 report, there were around 27700 new cases reported and 25700 deaths were caused due to liver cancer in the year 2018.

 

The liver cancer treatment in India includes options like:
 

  • Surgery
  • Surgery to remove the tumour
  • Liver transplant surgery
  • Cryoablation
  • Radiofrequency Ablation
  • Percutaneous Ethanol Injection
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Targeted Drug Therapy
  • Immunotherapy
     

8. Brain Cancer treatment in India

Brain-cancer

In Brain Cancer, a tumour or growth of abnormal cells occurs in the brain. The cancer cells grow to form a mass or cancer tissue that interferes with the brain functions. It can begin in the brain known as primary brain tumour or can begin in other parts of the body and spread to the brain known as secondary or metastatic brain tumour.
 

The incidence of brain tumour is rising in India. As per Globocan 2018 report, Brain Cancer is ranked 10th most common cancer. Approximately 28200 new cases and 24000 deaths 

are reported annually.

 

The options available for Brain cancer treatment in India are:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted Therapy
     

9. Stomach Cancer treatment in India

Stomach-cancer

Stomach cancer is also known as Gastric cancer. The cancer cells form in the mucus-producing cells which are present in the inner lining of the stomach which can also spread to nearby lymph nodes and other parts of the body such as the liver, lungs, bones and a woman’s ovaries.
 

Majority of stomach cancer are a type called Adenocarcinoma. Other types are Lymphoma, Gastric Sarcoma and Neuroendocrine tumours.
 

Stomach cancer is rare as compared to other types of cancer. Also, it is one of the dangerous types of cancer because it is difficult to diagnose stomach cancer as most people don’t show symptoms in the early stages. Thus, making it more difficult to treat.

 

Stomach Cancer is claimed to be the 4th most common cancer in India and 3rd most common cancer in men. According to Globocan 2018, around 57400 new cases were registered and 51500 deaths were caused due to this cancer.
 

The options available for stomach cancer treatment in India are:

Surgery 

  • Endoscopic Mucosal Resection
  • Subtotal Gastrectomy
  • Total Gastrectomy
  • Lymph nodes removal
  • Relieve signs and symptoms
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted Therapy

 

10. Oral Cancer treatment in India

Oral-cancer

Oral cancer is also known as Mouth cancer. It develops in the tissues of the mouth (oral cavity) or throat. It can occur on the lips, gums, tongue, inner lining of the cheeks, roof of the mouth, floor of the tongue, in the tonsils and in the salivary glands.

 

The risk factors for oral cancer include smoking, chewing tobacco, consumption of alcohol, family history, excessive sun exposure and Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
 

India accounts for one third of oral cancer cases in the world. Here, 20 per 100000 populations are affected by this cancer which is roughly 30% of all cancers. According to Globocan 2018 report, approximately 120000 new cases were reported and 73000 died because of oral cancer in 2018.

 

The treatment options available for oral cancer in India are:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted Therapy
  • Immunotherapy

 

11. Cervical Cancer

Cervical-cancer

Cervical cancer occurs in the cervix which is the narrow opening of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection is the main cause of cervical cancer.

 

Around 80 to 90 % cervical cancers are Squamous cell cancers. The second most common type is Adenocarcinoma, accounting for remaining 10 to 20 %. Women having age above 30 years have more risk of developing cervical cancer.But this cancer is highly preventable due to availability of screening tests and vaccine to prevent HPV infections.

 

Cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in India according to Globocan 2018 reports. In India alone, it accounts for one-fourth of global cervical cancer cases. More than 85 % of cervical cancer patients are from the age group of 40 years and above. The maximum number of cases amounting to 27.37 % of all cancer cases were reported in age group of 50-59 years.

 

The options available for cervical cancer treatment in India are:

  • Surgery 
  • Conization
  • Simple Hysterectomy
  • Radical Hysterectomy
  • Radiation Therapy 
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted Therapy
  • Immunotherapy

 

12. Gallbladder Cancer

Gallbladder-cancer

Gallbladder Cancer occurs when the cancer cells are formed in the gallbladder. The types of gallbladder cancer include adenosquamous carcinomas, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinosarcomas but the most common one is adenocarcinoma. It is difficult to diagnose gallbladder cancer as it often shows no signs or symptoms.
 

Gallbladder cancer incidence is higher in the Indian population as compared globally.The highest number of cases are reported in northern India. According to Globocan, around 26,000 new cases and 19,680 deaths were reported in 2018. Gallbladder cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in women. The incidence of gallbladder cancer in females in northern India is 9/1,00,000 per year which is high in comparison to 1/1,00,000 per year in western and southern India which is very low.

 

The treatment options for gallbladder cancer includes:

  • Surgery 
  • Cholecystectomy
  • Radical Gallbladder Resection
  • Palliative Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Palliative Therapy

 

13. Skin Cancer

Skin Cancer is one of the most common of all human cancers worldwide. It occurs when skin cells grow abnormally. It most often affects the skin that is exposed to the sun, but it can also affect the other areas of the skin that is not exposed to the sun.

 

Basal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma and Melanoma are the three main types of Skin Cancer. Skin cancer is very common worldwide but it is a less common malignancy in India as it is less than 1% of all the diagnosed cancers over here. Though the absolute number of cases is estimated to be huge because of the larger population base. 

 

Also, Basal cell carcinoma is the commonest malignancy all over the world but in India, Squamous cell carcinoma is reported to be the most prevalent type of skin cancer. In India, according to the Globocan 2018, approximately 3048 new cases and 2053 deaths have been reported due to skin cancer.

 

The Skin cancer treatment in India includes options such as:

  • Chemical Peel
  • Surgery 
  • Excisional Surgery
  • Mohs Micrographic Surgery
  • Curettage and Electrodesiccation
  • Cryosurgery
  • Laser Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy 
  • Chemotherapy 
  • Photodynamic Therapy 
  • Immunotherapy 
  • Targeted Therapy 

 

14. Eye Cancer

Eye-cancer

Eye cancer is uncommon worldwide. The cancer cells affect the outer parts of the eye such as the eyelid and can also develop in the tissues surrounding the eyeball or spread to other parts of the body like lung or breasts. The cancer that starts in the eyeball is called Intraocular cancer. The different types of eye cancers are – Squamous cell carcinoma, Melanoma, Lymphoma, out of which Melanoma and Lymphoma are the most common intraocular cancer in adults and Retinoblastoma which is common among children.

The incidence of Eye cancer among Indian population is low.But it’s increasing every year. The statistics show that its 0.3-0.4 percent with 70-80% cases seen in adult and 20-30% cases in children. Nearly, 2000 cases of retinoblastoma are reported in children every year in India.

 

The treatment options available to treat Eye cancer in India are:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy