What is gender reassignment surgery (MTF & FTM) cost in 2023?

Gender reassignment or gender affirmation procedures are carried out by a multispecialty team that includes board-certified plastic surgeons. The demand for such surgeries is gaining traction among transgender people around the world. This article gives a clear and detailed explanation of all the types of affirmation procedures and their detailed costs.

By Priyanka Dutta Deb

Updated on 25th, Jan'23

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According to statistics, the global sex reassignment surgery demand amounted to more than 316 million USD in 2019. Asian countries are now considered a great option to get their reassignment surgeries done. The rate of female-to-male (FTM) surgeries is higher than that of male-to-female (MTF). In the US, 6691 female-to-male and 2885 male-to-female surgeries were performed.

Do you know?

Even Robotic surgery is an effective alternative to penile inversion in most cases and vaginoplasty in transgender cases.

Robotic surgery is a revolutionary advancement in surgery; 

It is performed by using very small tools attached to a robotic arm.

There are two broad types of gender reassignment surgery for gender dysphoria and transgender body dysmorphia,: top surgery and bottom surgery. The top surgery is performed for both people assigned female at birth (AFAB) and assigned male at birth (AMAB). 

  • Male to female or non-binary (MTF/N): This procedure entails using saline or silicone implants to boost chest size and form for a more feminine or female appearance. Male to female top surgery is done under general anesthesia.
  • Female to male or non-binary (FTM/N): During FTM top surgery, breast tissue is removed and the chest is shaped to give the patient a flat, masculine, or male appearance. Following this, a nipple graft is planted to give a complete look.


Before we discuss each service's cost, let's have a quick look at overall transgender surgery costs in different countries.


You must be curious to know the gender change surgery cost of different surgical procedures. Let's read.

First, we will discuss gender reassignment surgery male to female costs. To know more about male to female surgery costs in detail, click here.

What is the cost of male-to-female top surgery?

Breast augmentation or augmentation mammoplasty is another name for MTF and MTN top surgery. 

The MTF/N top surgery or breast augmentation surgery cost in India is around USD 1290 to USD 1940. The surgeon's expertise and experience are two of the most critical aspects that affect the cost.

For the duration of the surgery, you will be put under general anesthesia. Your surgeon may choose different breast augmentation methods depending on your desired chest size, implant kind, and incision site.

The insertion cost and the implant cost are the two components of the surgery cost.

  • The cost of insertion is $ 1040 to $1550.
  • The cost of the implant-$386 to $1030 (depends on the manufacturer).
The average time for MTF and MTN top surgery is 1 to 2 hours.

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What is the cost of female-to-male top surgery?

An FTM or FTN top surgery procedure takes from 1.5 to 4 hours. Various treatments are performed to get a more flat, masculine, or male-looking chest. Double incision, periareolar, and keyhole are the most popular procedures used by surgeons. 


The FTM top surgery cost ranges around USD 3870.

Surgery Name


Double incision top surgery with nipple graftsThe cost of double incision with nipple grafts is around USD 3000 – 5000 (additional charges for anesthesia).
Periareolar top surgeryThe cost ranges from USD 2000 – to USD 2500.
Keyhole top surgerycosts around USD 2000 – USD 2500 per procedure.

Now that we have already discussed top surgery costs, let's have a look at how much bottom surgery costs.

AFAB and AMAB people can undergo bottom surgery as part of their gender confirmation process. Bottom surgery involves transforming or reconstructing the bottom or genitalia. This involves vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, and metoidioplasty.

What is the cost of male-to-female bottom surgery?

Vaginoplasty surgery is the major procedure performed in bottom surgery. There are three main options under vaginoplasty. Penile inversion, non-penile inversion vaginoplasty, and recto-sigmoid or colon graft.

The clitoris is moulded from the head/tip of the penis in all three surgical approaches. The vaginoplasty cost is around USD 3870 to USD 4520

Surgery Name


Penile inversionPenile inversion surgery costs between USD 3230 and USD 4520.
Recto-sigmoid vaginoplastyRecto-sigmoid vaginoplasty costs between USD 3870 and USD 5160
Scrotectomy surgeryThis will usually be part of the whole treatment but its individual cost will be around 258-387 USD
PenectomyCosts between USD 1100 to USD 1230
VulvoplastyThe average Vulvoplasty cost is around USD 4000 to USD 20,000

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What is the cost of female-to-male bottom surgery?

This procedure involves the removal of the female organs in the lower region and reassigning them to male sexual parts. It includes removing the uterus, vaginal remodeling, labia reconstruction, metoidioplasty, and phalloplasty.

The whole procedure may cost somewhere around USD 5160 to USD 10,335. 

Surgery Name


HysterectomyThe average cost of hysterectomy is around USD 985.
Salpingo oophorectomy surgeryThe cost of salpingo-oophorectomy is around USD 1630 to USD 3430.
Phalloplasty surgeryThe phalloplasty surgery cost is around $1300 to $3880.
Metoidioplasty surgeryThe cost of metoidioplasty surgery is around $ 3000 to $ 10, 000.The metoidioplasty cost is around $3,000 to $ 10,000.
Penile implant surgeryThe penile implant surgery cost in India begins from USD 1100.
Testicular prosthesis or testicular implant surgeryThe cost of this procedure may vary from $ 500 to $ 1000.
UrethroplastyThe cost of this treatment is around USD 3490 to USD 3860.
Scrotoplasty surgeryThe scrotoplasty treatment cost around USD 3500 to USD 8000
Glansplasty surgeryThe cost of this is around 1290 USD to USD 9000. 
Labioplasty surgeryThe Labioplasty cost ranges from USD 2800 to USD 3100

What is the cost of Facial feminization surgery?

Facial feminization surgery is a technique that involves changing your facial characteristics to make them appear more feminine. FFS is concerned with bone structure and nose shape. FFS is distinct for each person and can affect any part of the face or neck.

The facial feminization surgery cost is USD 1350. 


Surgery Name


Tracheal shaveTracheal shave cost is USD 650
Voice feminization surgeryThe cost of voice feminization surgery cost is around USD 1035 to USD 1292.
Cheek implantsThe cheek implants cost starts from USD 3669
Forehead implantsForehead implant cost is $ 26000
Chin augmentation or Chin implantChin implant cost is between USD 1100 to USD 15500. 
Jawline augmentation/ implantJawline augmentation/implant cost is USD 1100 to USD 15500. 

What is Hormonal Replacement Cost?

Hormonal replacement therapy is for both MTF/N and FTM/N transitioning.

MTF/N: The hormones for a male to female transition enhance the alignment of your gender identity. It helps induce physical changes in your body produced by female hormones during puberty (gender congruence). Male secondary sex traits can be avoided if feminizing hormone therapy like progesterone is initiated before male puberty.

FTM/N: You'll be administered the male hormone testosterone during masculinizing hormone therapy. It suppresses your menstrual cycles and lowers oestrogen synthesis in your ovaries.

The hormonal replacement therapy cost for MTF/N is USD 12/month and FTM/N is USD 7/month.

For the cost of other popular procedures in different countries, visit Medical treatment costs.

Factors affecting the cost of gender reassignment surgery

Hospital charges: It depends on the type of hospital you choose. Moreover, the cost also depends on whether you are admitted to a general ward or a private room.

Psychiatrist: If you need a psychiatrist to deal with your physical changes, your cost will impact you. A psychiatrist is recommended to understand better the complex procedures and adjustments you will need before and after your surgery.

Clinical Experts and Surgeons: You will discuss the specifics of your gender change surgery with your doctor. It includes an assessment of your medical health status, discussing your long-term gender confirmation goals, and evaluating which procedures may be most appropriate to assist you in your journey. You can ask for specific details such as risks, benefits, and what to expect from the surgery.

Medical Insurance: Your medical insurance will play an essential role in the procedure, saving you a lot of money.

Accommodation Charges: The accommodation charges are included for international patients.

Medication charges: These charges include all the medication you will receive before and after the procedure ends.

Pre and Post-treatment charges: The pre-treatment charges include doctor consultation fees, diagnosis charges, etc. The post-treatment charges may include medicine costs, doctor's revisit charges, etc.

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Do Insurance Companies Cover Gender Reassignment Surgery?

Yes, insurance companies that cover gender reassignment surgery! There is no legal prohibition for that. Not all employers provide insurance coverage to unmarried or live-in partners of straight employees. But, several organizations nowadays provide medical insurance to their employees' same-sex partners, including coverage for gender-reassignment surgery.

Some independent companies have made it a goal to try and incorporate this coverage into their medical insurance for employees. 

Note: This article is on the cost of gender reassignment surgery, and data about it is only for your informational purposes and is subject to change.


1. Side effects of gender reassignment surgery

  • Bleeding.
  • Infections.
  • Side effects of anesthesia.
  • Difficulty in urinating.
  • Severe complications in intestines.
  • Leakage of urine through openings.
  • Closure of vaginal opening.



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About Author


Priyanka Dutta Deb

Team Member of Clinicspots

Diligent working professional with about 5 yrs of multidisciplinary work experience: academic coordination, academic advisory and recruitment. Experienced in highly dynamic work environment.

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