What Exactly Is The HGH-FRAG Peptide?
This article discusses all you need to know about HGH-FRAG 176-191 as a researcher. It begins with its chemical makeup and moves on to its proposed properties, potential action, and reputable research peptide supplier.
The Growth Hormone in its fragmented form is referred to as HGH-FRAG. In particular, it comprises the 16 amino acids that come towards the end of the HGH sequence, which is otherwise 191 amino acids long. The peptide is denoted by the chemical formula C39H60N8O13 [i].
Studies suggest HGH-FRAG may operate by a very distinct mechanism from HGH. Because HGH fragments comprise spliced-together pieces of Growth Hormone, one may assume they operate like the original hormone. Researchers suggest that it actually does not.
Because it does not have all 191 amino acids, unlike its parent GH, HGH-FRAG may not attach to Growth Hormone Receptors (GHR). This may be because GHR are proteins that allow GH to interact with cells. Consequently, it may not be able to copy the process of producing IGF-1 or carry out any anabolic activities in the same manner as GH would.
The lipolytic qualities of GH appear to have been preserved in this substance. Research suggests that, as a result, the HGH-FRAG peptide may possibly be employed to carry out the necessary actions associated with lipid metabolism.
What is the Function of HGH-FRAG Peptide?
The functioning mechanism of HGH-FRAG is still not completely understood, and it is subject to much criticism from members of the scientific community. Nevertheless, there are three primary domains in which HGH-FRAG suggested results that were superior to others. Let's investigate these processes that have been supported by research to obtain a deeper understanding of how HGH-FRAG 176-191 has garnered such positive reception all around the globe.
In contrast to growth hormone, HGH-FRAG does not appear to inherit all of the characteristics of its biological parent molecule. Instead, it appears to hold a single exceptional potential, namely lipolysis. The presentation of HGH-FRAG 176-191 in obese mice appeared to increase the number of beta-3 adrenergic receptors formed in the animals' fatty tissues. [ii]
These receptors modulate the thermogenesis process in muscles, particularly skeletal muscles. They are also implicated in the mobilization and use of fat in adipose tissue, where they are engaged in both processes. [iii]
Additionally, research suggests that a course of presentation with HGH-FRAG for three weeks appeared to have resulted in an approximately fifty percent reduction in the weight gain experienced by obese mice. [iv]
Surprisingly, findings suggested the HGH-FRAG 176-191 peptide only worked in mice who were overweight or obese. A mouse with a typical weight did not appear to experience appreciable body mass loss. [ii]
Researchers speculated that because of its C-terminal, HGH-FRAG may have the potential to lower blood sugar levels, which would be another probable mode of action that it follows. In order to determine whether or whether the fragments of HGH had the same hypoglycemic properties, researchers set out to investigate this question.
One of these pieces was numbered 176-191. Scientists hypothesize that the peptide fragment could lower glucose levels in the blood. As a result, it may be studied as part of the mitigation research in pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). [v]
However, for any of the pathways mentioned above to be asserted with hard-core proof, more meta-analyses and clinical studies are required.
A study is now being conducted to learn about and investigate the potential effects of HGH-FRAG 176-191 on the regeneration and development of cartilage. In the laboratory, giving hyaluronic acid and HGH-FRAG to rabbits appeared to result in significant increases in cartilage production. [vi]
HGH-FRAG Peptide Properties
HGH-FRAG was tested in several research studies during its existence on the market. These tests were carried out before the product was ever sold.
Reducing fat reserves without serious effects is one of HGH-FRAG 176-191 research-suggested properties. Other properties may include:
Studies suggest that due to its potential to control glucose levels in blood, HGH-FRAG may be useful in research studies in the context of cardiometabolic illnesses, such as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).
Additionally, it is hypothesized to possibly influence the levels of IGF-1 in the blood and/or interact with other bodily systems, additionally, it is possible that it may up regulate muscle recovery and enhance bone density, affecting the musculoskeletal system.
[i] National Center for Biotechnology Information (2023). PubChem Compound Summary for CID 16131230, Somatotropin (176-191). Retrieved July 17, 2023 from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Somatotropin-_176-191.
[ii] Heffernan M, Summers RJ, Thorburn A, Ogru E, Gianello R, Jiang WJ, Ng FM. The effects of human GH and its lipolytic fragment (AOD9604) on lipid metabolism following chronic treatment in obese mice and beta(3)-AR knock-out mice. Endocrinology. 2001 Dec;142(12):5182-9. doi: 10.1210/endo.142.12.8522. PMID: 11713213.
[iii] Ferrer-Lorente R, Cabot C, Fernández-López JA, Alemany M. Combined effects of oleoyl-estrone and a beta3-adrenergic agonist (CL316,243) on lipid stores of diet-induced overweight male Wistar rats. Life Sci. 2005 Sep 2;77(16):2051-8. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2005.04.008. PMID: 15935402.
[iv] Ng FM, Sun J, Sharma L, Libinaka R, Jiang WJ, Gianello R. Metabolic studies of a synthetic lipolytic domain (AOD9604) of human growth hormone. Horm Res. 2000;53(6):274-8. doi: 10.1159/000053183. PMID: 11146367.
[v] Ng FM, Bornstein J. Hyperglycemic action of synthetic C-terminal fragments of human growth hormone. Am J Physiol. 1978 May;234(5):E521-6. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.1978.234.5.E521. PMID: 645904.
[vi] Kwon DR, Park GY. Effect of Intra-articular Injection of AOD9604 with or without Hyaluronic Acid in Rabbit Osteoarthritis Model. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2015 Summer;45(4):426-32. PMID: 26275694.