Ebola Outbreak 2022: Africa sees yet another Ebola flare-up

2022-Africa sees yet another Ebola outbreak, the first case being identified on 4'th of May in the Mbandaka city of Congo alerting the local as well as international health authorities.

  • General Surgeryy

By Akshata Jadhav

Updated on 14th, June'22

Blog Banner Image

Ebola virus disease is not unknown to us. Ebola virus disease is a group of infections caused by multiple or groups of viruses in the genes that affect humans and non-humans like monkeys, gorillas, or chimpanzees. This virus is prone to specific regions of Sub- Saharan African countries. Across four decades, there have been 34 Ebola outbreaks, 14,823 deaths of 34,356 cases recorded with nearly 11 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have recorded these Ebola outbreaks. 


How does Ebola Virus spread?

The Ebola virus is contagious to some extent. A person can contract the Ebola virus if they come in physical contact with the infected patient. However, Ebola spreads through direct contact with the body, blood, or bodily fluids of the person infected or who has died because of ebola. Similarly, contact with infected animals such as monkeys, chimpanzees, and fruit bats can lead to Ebola infection.    


Congo Ebola Outbreak 2022 

Although persistent efforts to curtail its spread, sporadic Ebola virus cases still occur. The Ministry of Health announced the most recent outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in the Mbandaka health zone, Equateur Province, on April 23, 2022. This is the third outbreak in the Equateur province, the first in 2018, followed by the second in the summer of 2020.  


The reason for the Ebola virus in 2022 could be an African fruit bat or maybe even the source animal (reservoir host). However, scientists are still looking for evidence of the bat's role in the Ebola virus transmission. 


Sequencing data from the first confirmed case in this outbreak indicates that the patient is a new spill-over event from an animal to a person and has no connections with the previous outbreaks. 


The first victim of the Ebola virus was a 31 YO male suffering from fever and headache. He received anti-malarial drugs and antibiotics during his home treatment. Later on, he was shifted to two different medical units with no success in a span of five days. Finally, he was admitted to the General Referral Hospital in Wangata for treatment. 


The second EVD case was of a 25 YO female from Mbandakala and a family member of the first EVD patient. She sought treatment at a prayer home, nurse home and pharmacy and finally died. 


 The Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), in conjunction with WHO, is taking measures to prevent and control the outbreak. They have initiated measures such as isolations, laboratory confirmations, and checking at the entry checkpoints. Other preventive measures include - 


  • Administration of Ebola vaccination
  • Only three patients have been tested negative from a batch of 270 suspected patients tested for the virus.
  • Healthcare training is given to people
  • Activation of the Alert system within the limits of the boundaries of the infected areas and the neighboring places
  • Identification and establishment of 16+ points of control in Mbandaka
  • On 24 April International Coordinating Group received approval to use Ervebo licensed vaccine. A total of 1307 does were stored in Goma, and 200 does with matching injections. 
  • Strict measures are taken to set up screening and isolation facilities at the Mbandaka Ebola Treatment Centre and other health facilities. 


There is a high risk of Ebola Virus Disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo on account of multiple reasons, viz. presence of animal reservoirs, the host for the previous spill-over events, a high number of outbreaks, environmental changes, reduced capacity of the public health sector due to the other outbreaks of cholera, monkeypox, and COVID-19 pandemic coupled with violence and conflict. Furthermore, the city Mbandaka border is located on the Congo river making it challenging to close its border.


The World Health Organization suggests the following measures to further reduce the Ebola virus spread in West Africa.


  • Reduction of contact between wildlife animals such as bats, monkeys, or apes and human beings is essential. Thorough cleaning of the meat of these animals to prevent transmission. The consumption of the meat of these animals should be restricted or reduced.
  • Also, people should wear gloves and protective clothing when handling these animals. 
  • Male survivors should practice safe sex for 12 months or until their semen is tested negatively for the Ebola virus. 
  • Avoid body contact with a person infected with the Ebola virus. Also, regular washing with water and soap is advisable to stay safe. 
  • Vaccination is necessary for people who are likely to come in contact with infected persons. 


The availability of PPE and Infection Prevention Control capacities need proper management to ensure an adequate and skilled workforce for managing Ebola-infected patients.


Ebola - Detection and Symptoms 

Detection of Ebola is possible within ten days of getting infected or coming in contact with an infected person. The symptoms include fever, aches, weakness, fatigue, sore throat, loss of appetite, unexplainable hemorrhaging, rashes, bleeding, or changes in skin effects. 


How to stay safe from the Ebola virus?

The Ebola virus is transmitted from wild animals to human beings, followed by human-to-human transmission. Hence, it is advisable to reduce contact with infected wild animals and the consumption of raw meat. Human beings should wear gloves and protective clothing when handling animals. In addition, animal meat, especially of bats, forest antelopes, or unknown animals (bushmeat) should be well-cooked before consuming it or avoided as much as possible


Protective gloves and apparel should be worn to reduce the risk of human-to-human transmission. Also, people should avoid direct or close contact with Ebola-affected people. In addition, caretakers and family members visiting or looking after Ebola-affected people should wash their hands regularly. They should avoid contact with the blood, body fluids, or personal belongings attending their funeral. It is advisable to abstain from sex till the tests reveal that the male partner does not have the Ebola virus.



History of the Ebola Virus and its outbreak

 In 1976, Zaire and Sudan, located in Central Africa, were simultaneously affected by a fatal hemorrhagic fever.  The Ebola virus was discovered in 1976 in Zaire and Sudan, both located in Central Africa. The then public health department assumed that travel of an infected person from one region to another led to its outbreak. The fevers were named Zaire-ebolavirus and Sudan ebolavirus accordingly. Later, it was observed that the Ebola virus was prevalent in people interacting with wildlife or consuming bushmeat.


From 2014 to 2016, most cases of Ebola Virus Disease were reported from the rural forest areas of southeast Guinea, which rapidly spread to the urban areas of Africa and soon resulted in a global pandemic. The West Africa Ebola epidemic in 2014-16 is one of the largest epidemics in world history. 


During this period, the healthcare workers represented a mere 3.9% of the entire Ebola-affected population in West Africa, especially in the countries of Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea combined. Moreover, nearly 74% of the transmission occurred due to direct contact with the dead bodies of the Ebola-affected patients, i.e. within the family.


Going forward, in order to tackle the Ebola Virus Epidemic, the government of these sub-Saharan countries are facing these challenges which can be overcome through extensive efforts in healthcare management especially in detection, vaccination, and treatment of the Ebola Virus patients accompanied by modernizing the relevant information technology services. 


FactorChallenge Opportunity 
Epidemiological and ecological FactorsEbola is endemic in western and central Africa Establishing magnitude of EVD in the affected areas
Health System

Limited lab capacities

Weak surveillance system

Lack of effective medicines

Availability of serological lab technologies

Adoption of new health facilities 

Sociocultural Limited community involvement

Adoption of health approach in communities in countries

Availability in information and communication technologies

Relevant Blogs

Blog Banner Image

Ebola Outbreak 2022: Africa sees yet another Ebola flare-up

2022-Africa sees yet another Ebola outbreak, the first case being identified on 4'th of May in the Mbandaka city of Congo alerting the local as well as international health authorities.

Blog Banner Illustration

List of Turkish Doctors ( Updated 2023)

The purpose of this blog is to provide a directory of best Turkish doctors to all people who are interested in seeking medical treatments in Turkey

Blog Banner Image

Dr. Harikiran Chekuri- Medical Head

Dr. Harikiran Chekuri is the medical Head at ClinicSpots. He is the founder of ReDefine Skin and Hair Transplant Center in Hyderabad. He is one of the best Plastic and Hair Transplant Surgeons in India.

Blog Banner Image

Robotic Surgery in India- Compare Costs, Hospitals & Doctors in 2023

Indian healthcare has had many breakthroughs after adopting robotic surgeries. The growing popularity of robotic surgery in India has been able to attract a lot of patients from overseas. If you are someone looking for details about robotic surgery in India, you have landed on the right page. We have compiled everything in one place you might want to know regarding robotic surgery in India.

Blog Banner Illustration

9 Reasons Why Health Insurance Claims Get Denied and Tips to Avoid Them

Let's examine the 9 main reasons why a claim against a pre-existing health insurance plan could be denied and discover effective ways to prevent these issues from occurring.

Blog Banner Illustration

Know Your Sleep: The Stages, Benefits, and Tips

Sleep is really important for us. It helps our body and mind recharge and get better. When we sleep, we rest and our awareness of things around us goes down. This helps us feel better and be ready for the next day. Let's get to know our sleep.

Blog Banner Illustration

Blood Sugar Level: How Does it Relate to HGH-Frag 176-191?

Discover the Connection Between Blood Sugar Levels and HGH-Frag 176-191 - Uncover the Impact of this Peptide on Glucose Regulation and Hormone Balance.

Question and Answers

I have growths around my anus

Male | 27

Consult a doctor for a proper evaluation and diagnosis. The possible causes can be hemorrhoids, anal fissures, skin tags, anal warts, or, rarely, anal cancer.. Seek medical attention promptly to determine the cause and get appropriate treatment or further tests if needed

Answered on 26th July'23

Dr. Babita Goel

Dr. Babita Goel

Surgery ke baad tanke pak rha hai abhi dusri baar pak na chalu hua hai kya kru

Male | 30

You must visit your doctor who performed the surgery since you are experiencing delayed healing or persistent wound leakage after surgery. They will be able to assess the wound and provide appropriate advice or treatment.

Answered on 16th June'23

Dr. Babita Goel

Dr. Babita Goel

Hello doc, I'm suffering pain on the left side of my stomach for the past few days. It reduces and increases at regular intervals. Sometimes it is like my full stomach is paining. Please advise. I am taking tabs for the LASIK surgery which I took recently.

Female | 35

You can get alternative therapy done and get the meridians balanced. i.e acupuncture acupressure

Answered on 26th Feb'23

Dr. Hanisha Ramchandani

Dr. Hanisha Ramchandani

Hi, I am 41 year old man, and I need to remove fat from my face as well as double chin. Looking for the surgery but off course with scissor. So what would be the easiest way to Remove it and how long does it takes?

Male | 41

According to me, it is liposuction. It can be done in 1-2 hrs. But please note, liposuction is only recommended if you want to remove small amounts of fats. Many people mistake it as a weight loss procedure. I suggest you to visit a doctor for proper examination. Based on that, it will be decided whether you eligible for liposuction or need some other procedure to remove fat from your face and double chin. 

Answered on 7th Feb'23

Dr. Deepesh Goyal

Dr. Deepesh Goyal

Top 7 Related Category Cost in country